In today’s energy work a variety of types of boilers. They can be classified by type of fuel, coolant type, accommodation type, level of mechanization. The specific type of boiler is selected depending on the goals and objectives, operating conditions and customer requirements.
- Fuel type
- Gas: The advantage of this kind of boiler is that the gas – one of the most economical and environmentally friendly fuels. Gas boiler does not require complicated and cumbersome equipment fuel and slag removal, and can be fully automated.
- Fuel oil: These boilers can run on waste oil, fuel oil, diesel oil. They quickly put into operation, do not require special permits, the connection negotiation, obtaining gas limits (as opposed to gas).
- Solid: To the solid fuel concerns coal, peat, wood, pellets and briquettes from waste wood processing and agriculture. The advantage of this type of boiler is the availability and low price of fuel, but it requires the installation of fuel and ash handling systems.
- Coolant type
- Steam: In such a boiler heat carrier is steam, which is used mainly for manufacturing processes in industrial plants.
- Water: This type of boiler is designed for heating and hot water supply of residential buildings, industrial and public facilities. The coolant is water, heated to +95 +115 ° C.
- Combined: In these boilers are placed as steam and hot water boilers. Hot water is used to cover the load for hot water, heating and ventilation, and the steam is supplied to provide the technological needs of the enterprise.
- Diathermic oil: In this boiler is used as a coolant in the high-temperature organic liquid, the temperature of which can reach +300 ° C.
- Accommodation type
- Modular: This type of boiler is becoming increasingly popular in Russia in recent years, thanks to many advantages in comparison with stationary boilers: fastest time of installation and commissioning, factory-assembled modules, the ability to increase capacity by adding units, battery life, high efficiency, mobility. Depending on the placement of block-modular boiler can be detached, and attached, integrated, roof, basement.
- Stationary: Stationary boilers are usually built when the required power exceeds 30 MW, or the construction of a modular boiler for some reason impossible. Stationary boilers distinguished by major building and construction (foundations, walls and partitions, roof). Installation of equipment on site is performed.
- The level of mechanization
Depending on the degree of mechanization / automation processes are the following types of boiler:
- Hand: Small boilers can be equipped with boilers, in which the fuel supply is performed manually by operators. The fuel is supplied to the boiler room truck or in some cases from the outside through a loading hopper. The ash and slag from the ash hopper and are removed manually by the operator and exported outside the boiler room via trolley.
- Mechanized: Modern boilers are equipped with solid mechanization, significantly facilitate the work boiler operator. Fuel supply by means of conveyors or skip hoists. Coal is pre-processed. The ash and slag may be removed by various methods – mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic or a combination thereof.
- Automated: This type of boiler assumes full automation and minimal presence of the human factor. Fully automated, as a rule, gas boiler.