The ventilation system in commercial building performs the functions of cleaning the air from dust and other small particles, localizing and removing odors, and creating a comfortable micro climate. Ventilation in sales areas, shops should be low noise, if possible hidden from the eyes of visitors and easy to maintain.
The design of the ventilation system for commercial building is similar to the ventilation design of administrative, industrial buildings. However, the specifics of commercial enterprises determine some important, mandatory conditions.
If the retail space is divided into several shops, each of them should be separately regulated ventilation channel. This allows you to avoid mixing smells and set your micro climate in each individual room, depending on the load.
In shopping centers, air conditioning is mandatory.
The store should have its own autonomous ventilation system, even if it is located in a house, large office or manufacturing center. It is not allowed to connect the air ducts of the sales area with the ventilation system of the entire building.
The area of the retail space directly affects the type of ventilation system to be installed.
The supply and exhaust ventilation system is equipped with fans, which make it possible to regulate the flow and discharge of air in all weather conditions.
It can be supplemented with an air heater, air cooler, various filters, dryers and humidifiers.
Ventilation systems allow you to create a comfortable micro climate. Such a system is suitable for large trading rooms.
The central ventilation and air conditioning system is an extensive network of small supply and exhaust systems that are interconnected. To cool the air using water or freon. Cooling systems can be roughly divided into two main classes: water – chiller-fan coil and freon – VRV and VRF systems. As a rule, they are installed on the roof of the building or next to the building. This centralized ventilation system is designed for buildings where it is necessary to regulate the micro climate and clean air separately in each room. It is used, as a rule, in large shopping centers, where cafes, restaurants, shops, including perfume shops, are located nearby, and each of them represents a separate room.
Design and calculation
Data required for calculation in the design of ventilation of commercial premises:
- The location of the building, its windows, doors relative to the cardinal points, the climate. A large role is played by panoramic windows and roofs.
- Type, lighting power and heat gain from it.
- Availability of equipment in the sales area and how much heat it emits during operation.
- The functionality of the room. Will there be a bakery, cafe, outdoor perfumery, household chemicals or other odorous goods in the sales area?
- The number of employees and the average number of visitors.
The specificity of the calculations of ventilation for commercial building is that it is almost impossible to calculate the exact number of people in the store. They come and go each at will at any time. For calculations, take the average accepted values of the density of the number of people for different types of retail premises:
1 person on 6 square. meters – for bookstores, sporting goods, equipment, electronics, furniture and jewelry stores;
1 person to 5 square. meters – for all other types of stores, including grocery.
The number of employees in the store is a fixed number. For supermarkets also take the average number of staff:
1 employee per 100 square meters- for a grocery store.
1 employee per 160 sq. M. meters for all other types of self-service stores.
The calculation of the ventilation system consists of the following steps:
- Determination of parameters of external air in the cold and warm period of the year. Selection of air characteristics in the room, taking into account the functionality of the room.
- Calculation of heat loss through the walls, windows, doors, fences.
- Calculation of heat gain from equipment, people, lighting, heating, from the sun.
- Determining the amount of moisture that enters the air from people in the room, hot products.
- Taking into account the data obtained, the value of air exchange is determined, which is necessary to maintain optimal parameters of temperature and humidity in the room.
- Separately, air exchange is considered for a bakery and a cafe, if they are provided for in the sales area.
- Aerodynamic calculation. It allows you to determine how much air pressure drops when passing through all ducts. This value affects the speed at which air will flow into the room.
All calculations are made separately for the cold and warm seasons. In some regions, the transition period is included in the calculation. It is characterized by high humidity and strong temperature variations during the day.
After determining the required values, proceed to the design of the ventilation system. Its effectiveness depends largely on how well the air exchange is organized, whether the air is evenly distributed throughout the room, and whether a comfortable micro climate is created.
For the selection of ventilation equipment developed special programs. The necessary parameters are introduced, the calculated values for which the program selects the units that match each other.
Installation of the ventilation system is carried out by the specialized organization. A schedule is drawn up according to which construction and installation works are underway. After complete assembly, the ventilation system is tested at various loads. If the results are positive, the installation of ventilation is considered completed.